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The U.S. DOE has published a report comparing the energy consumed over the entire life cycle for LED lamps, compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs), and incandescent lamps. Entitled Review of the Life-Cycle Energy Consumption of Incandescent, Compact Fluorescent, and LED Lamps, it is based on existing life-cycle assessment literature of lighting products. To download a PDF of this report, go to www.ssl.energy.gov/tech_reports.html The DOE report “2010 U.S. Lighting Market Characterization” (LMC) provides comprehensive and detailed estimates of the national inventory of installed lamps as well as their associated energy use and lumen production. The LMC focuses on four sectors: residential buildings, commercial buildings, industrial buildings, and outdoor.