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Entitled Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting Products: LED Manufacturing and Performance. It compares the environmental impact of an LED lamp, an incandescent bulb, and a CFL from the beginning to the end of their life cycle – including manufacturing, operation, and disposal. This is the most comprehensive study of its kind for SSL products, addressing both energy and environmental impacts, and it's the first public report to consider the LED manufacturing process in depth.